ApoE Genotype


Apolipoprotein-E (ApoE) is composed of 299 amino acids and transports lipoproteins, fat-soluble vitamins, and cholesterol into the lymph system and then into the blood. It is synthesized principally in the liver, but has also been found in other tissues such as the brain, kidneys, and spleen.

In the nervous system, non-neuronal cell types, most notably astroglia and microglia, are the primary producers of ApoE, while neurons preferentially express the ApoE receptors. There are seven currently identified mammalian receptors for ApoE which belong to the evolutionarily conserved low density lipoprotein receptor gene family. Our ApoE test panel kit can provide insight into your genetics and help you take steps to improve your health. 

About Apolipoprotein E

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a class of proteins involved in the metabolism of fats in the body.

This protein combines with fats to form molecules called lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are re­sponsible for packaging cholesterol and other fats and carrying them through the blood­stream.

Maintaining normal levels of cholesterol is es­sential for the prevention of conditions which affect the heart, blood vessels, hormones and cell membranes.

Since the brain is made of mostly neurons covered with a myelin sheath composed of choles­terol, it follows that the protein portion of these lypoproteins would affect the structure, integrity and functions of all fats in the brain and body.

ApoE Genotypes

Everyone has two copies of the ApoE gene and the genetic combination determines your ApoE “genotype” -E2/E2, E2/E3, E2/E4, E3/E3, E3/E4, E4/E4. This genotypic test deter­mines an individual’s ability to detoxify mercury as well as their propensity to develop Alzheimer’s and other autoim­mune/neurological conditions. People with the ApoE gene (genotype 3/4, 4/4) potentially have up to 12 times greater risk of developing Alzheimer’s Disease compared with those who have ApoE genotypes (2/2, 2/3, 3/3).

Another potential role of ApoE is in the removal of mercury from the biosystem. The optimal genotype for mercury removal is ApoE 2/2, whereas ApoE 3/3 is the most preva­lent in the human population, and the most potentially dangerous is ApoE 4/4 with no mercury removing capability.

Keep in mind that a persons genetic profile is just that – a “profile” and does not definitively indict a person to any one specific disease. It is commonly understood by scientists and doctors that a persons environmental exposure during their lifetime is just as important, if not more important, than their genetic profile.

The ApoE gene has been significantly linked as a genetic predisposition to Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive development.

The ApoE4 genetic variant has been associated with:

  • Brain atrophy
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Poor Immune Response
  • Increased Cholesterol Levels

Genotypes 3/4 and 4/4

People with harmful forms of the ApoE gene (genotype 3/4, 4/4) have up to 12 times the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease compared with those who have other variations (2/2, 2/3, 3/3) of the gene. Another role of ApoE is in the removal of mercury from the biosystem.

Mercury and ApoE

The optimal genotype for removing mercury is ApoE 2/2 (4 cysteine residues), whereas ApoE 3/3 is the most prevalent in the human population (2 cysteine residues and 2 arginine residues), and the most detrimental is ApoE 4/4 (4 arginines and no mercury removing capability).